2. Mining Methods - copper.org

Open pit mining is a technique used to extract copper ore near the earth's surface. Open pit mining is the most widely used technique of mining copper today. It is accomplished by creating and using benches or terraces to gradually reach deeper under the earth's surface. Underground mining is used when the copper ore is not near the earth's ...

Underground versus Open Pit Mining - Firwin Corp's Blog

As its name indicates, open pit mining is a method of extracting rock or minerals from open pits, like quarries and burrows. This ancient form of mining requires no tunneling and is utilized when substances are fairly close to the surface. These mines are not just big open holes.

THE TRANSITION FROM OPEN PIT TO UNDERGROUND …

faults crossing the pit and 3 dominant joint sets ubiquitous in the mine. Ground water is also present. 800m 400m Figure 1 Birds-eye view of Palabora Mine and 3D model of pit and cave After completion of the open pit mining, a cave was initiated about 400 m below the pit floor, as shown in Figure 1.

The Advantages of Open Pit Mining | Sciencing

Mar 13, 2018· Open pit mining does offer some advantages over traditional deep shaft mining. Pit mining is more cost effective than shaft mining because more ore can be extracted and more quickly. The working conditions are safer for the miners because there is no risk of cave in or toxic gas. Open pit mining is the preferred ...

(PDF) Open-Pit to Underground Mining − Where Is the ...

PDF | In the study, a method based economical block models of OP and Ug to determine the Optimum Transition Depth (OTD) from Open-Pit (OP) to Underground (Ug) mining was …

Transition from Open Pit to Underground Mine - srk.com

Transition from open pit to underground mining often risks mud rushes (if mud forming minerals are present), and from sumps and surface dams. Air blasts can result from underground collapses or mud rushes. The presence of an abandoned pit above can lead to greater risks of dilution and mud rushes.

High-grade gold-copper open pit and underground mine

Access to high-grade underground ore was brought forward by two years. 33% mine productivity rate increase from 1.2 Mtpa to 1.6 Mtpa over a longer underground mine life. Reduced open pit waste mining by nearly 70 million tonnes. Improved project economics including increased cash flows and a longer mine …

Mining - Underground mining | Britannica.com

In open-pit mines this consists of building access roads and stripping the overlying waste material in order to expose the ore and establish the initial bench geometries. For an underground mine the development stage is considerably more complicated. Some of the development components of an underground mine are illustrated in the figure.

Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut-over: Part One ...

Many mines combine open pit with underground mining, and on many occasions the underground mine is an extension of the open-pit. This article is the first of two articles that looks at some of the challenges associated with this situation, and some methods with which to determine the cut-over point from open pit to underground mining and the implications these have on project value.

Vibration Safety Criteria for Surficial Rock Mass of Open ...

It is a precursory and typical open-pit to underground mine in China. Marble mainly distributes in the south slope and diorite mainly distributes in the north slope. In open-pit mining, the bench height is 12m and the bottom elevation is -48m ASL. In order to ensure the …

Open-pit mining - Wikipedia

Aug 22, 2017· Underground operations usually cause many more difficulties than normally occur in open pit mines, but without constant supervision and strong safeguards, either type of mine can be dangerous for workers. Open pit and underground mines are often in remote locations that require miners to work and live on mining camps for long periods of time ...

Optimizing the open pit-to-underground mining transition ...

The precedence constraints in both the open pit and underground mine do not need to be changed based on the crown pillar location, because of the direction of extraction for each method. Any non-zero lower bounds on the underground mine's resource constraints are removed to allow for a delayed start of the underground mine.

Types of Australian mine: Open Pit or Underground Mine ...

With both open pit and underground mining, the work can be hard and the hours long, and you can be rostered on for many days at a time. That said, it can be rewarding in ways that are more than just financial—and the money is great! If you have any questions on either open pit or underground mining jobs in Australia—or both—simply fill in ...

Open Cut or Underground Mining - Which is better? - Bend ...

Oct 21, 2017· Open-cut mining. Open-cut gets its name because that's exactly what this type of mining looks like, a big open pit. This type of mining allows for the extraction of minerals that aren't very far under the surface. The process keeps the activity from going deep underground. This has …

Transition from Open-Pit to Underground as a New ...

When open pit mining is transited to underground, boundary pillar is the critical safety insurance [1] [2][3]. Boundary pillar could not only avoid mutual impact of the open pit production and ...

What Is Open-Pit Mining? (with picture) - wisegeek.com

Jul 01, 2019· It differs from other types of mining processes that may require the digging of underground tunnels a long distance from the surface in order to reach the material. One of the advantages of the open-pit mining system is the fact that it is not as capital or labor intensive as the underground method of mineral or precious metal and stone extraction.

Mining Sites: The Transition from Open-Pit to Underground ...

Jul 10, 2019· Open-Pit Mining. Open-pit mining can also be identified as open-cast or open cut mining. The practice operates above ground, always at the surface, extracting minerals and rocks from the surface. Open-pit mining presents less dangers in comparison to underground mining - these surface mines do not need to tackle issues such as air loss and cave ...

CDC - Mining - Underground and Surface Mining Facts - 2008 ...

Underground and Surface Mining Facts - 2008 (HTML) Keywords: ... were reported to MSHA as working at underground mining locations in 2008. This is in contrast to 332,797 employees (or 278,054 FTE employees) who were reported as working at surface locations. ... surface operations (strip or open pit), auger, culm banks, dredge, other surface ...

Reading: Open-Pit Mining | Geology - Lumen Learning

Open-pit mining, or open-cast mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining.

INDONESIA | Freeport-McMoRan

All underground mining levels and the ore flow system are being commissioned. As PT-FI transitions mining from the open pit to underground, its production is expected to be significantly lower in 2019 and 2020, compared to 2018. Metal production is expected to …

The many advantages of underground mining - born2invest.com

Apr 27, 2015· Choosing between open-pit mining and underground mining is a decision that every mining company makes, but it is not based on the miner's whim and predilection. Selection always depends on the geometry properties of the deposit, its position, location, and type. Generally, startup explorers and miners begin with open-pit mining because it is ...

Open-Pit Mining Methods

Open-pit mining methods are applicable to mining ore deposits that apex at or near the surface. If the deposit apexes below the surface, the overburden and barren capping overlying the ore must be removed in advance of open-pit mining. The removal of this material is known as stripping.

How to profit from low-grade gold mines – MINING.COM

Dec 23, 2018· Open-pit mining is either done with a fleet of haul trucks (some now automated) or an in-pit crushing and conveying system (IPCC). Underground mines are accessed via a shaft or ramp.

Underground v.s. Surface Coal Mines: Is Deep Drilling ...

Strip mining is sensible when the ore body is near the surface. The practice includes some of the largest machines on earth, removing long strips of overlying soil and rock and then removing coal deposits. Open-pit mining utilizes blasting and mineral removing, digger deeper into …

Environmental Risks of Mining

Underground Mining. Underground mining has the potential for tunnel collapses and land subsidence (Betournay, 2011). It involves large-scale movements of waste rock and vegetation, similar to open pit mining. Additionally, like most traditional forms of mining, underground mining can release toxic compounds into the air and water.

Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut-over: Part Two ...

Planning to mine a deposit from both open pit and underground (sometimes at the same time) is complex. Part two of our article on Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut-over discusses the three typical approaches to determining the cut-over point.

Chile's largest open pit copper mine goes underground ...

Jul 12, 2012· Chile's largest open pit copper mine, Chuquicamata, has officially started its conversion towards underground mining. The project will cost Codelco over $2 billion in …

Determining the open pit to underground transition: A new ...

unnamed mine has an existing underground mine and is contemplating an open pit expansion that could mine material that would otherwise be mined in a future underground expansion. These authors were able to compare a number of different transition scenarios, each …